Alex Baldacchino and colleagues have developed a PC based Overdose RIsk InfOrmatioN (ORION) ( decision making system as part of a European Commission funded programme. ORION was developed and piloted as an e-health psycho-educational tool to provide information to drug using individuals about the risks of suffering a drug overdose. 194 opioid dependent patients participated from 4 countries (Fife as the UK centre) N=39; Germany N=99; Italy N=40 and Denmark N=16. A structural equation model was fitted to summarise the predicted associations between perceived risk and willingness to change risks of opioid overdose. The degree of engagement with the tool (time spent and number of changes to overdose risk factors) was explored. The encouragement of drug users to engage in exploring changes to their overdose risk when presented on a computer screen appears to increase willingness to change risky behaviour.


(1) Baldacchino, A., Crocamo, C., Humphris, G., Neufeind, J., Frisher M., Scherbaum, N., Carra, G (2016). Decision support in addiction: the development of an e-health tool to assess and prevent risk of fatal overdose.The ORION Project. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 133, 207–216.

(3) Carra G , Crocamo C, Humphris G, Neufeind J, Scherbaum N, Baldacchino A. (2017). Engagement in the ORION eHealth tool for opioid overdose prevention and self-efficacy: a preliminary study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 20, (12),762-768

(4) Humphris G , Carrà G , Frischer M, Neufeind J, Cecil J, Scherbaum N, Crome I, Baldacchino A (2017) Engagement in an E-health tool (ORION) predicts opioid-dependent patient likelihood of behavioural change. Heroin Addiction Related Problems 19(5), 35-44